The whole life of Giuseppe Mazzini was consecrated to people’s emancipation. Having this ideal as polar star, Mazzini never agreed the methodology of Marxist learning, which was based on the materialistic perspective. Mazzini was persuaded that materialism is a sad vision of the world, which oppresses the spirit and, definitely, it works against the possibility of emancipation.
Giuseppe Mazzini worked on a different point of view, which is completely modern and perfect to our times: the spiritual perspective of emancipation, through the opening of the initiatic system to a larger number of people.
Because of this reason, the political adversaries tried to reduce the meaning of his action. Therefore, Giuseppe Mazzini remains an half unknown historical personality.
Looking from this perspective, be aware, because there are a lot of false documents (diffused by his adversaries) who claims Mazzini to be a conspirator . See, for instance, the letters on Illuminati to Albert Pike or even the ridiculous idea (diffused by his adversary, like Cavour) that he was the inventor of the Mafia.
It is also claimed that Giuseppe Mazzini was the inheritor of the leading role of the Illuminati order,
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It is uncorrect to refer to Mazzini as enlightened in the meaning of a conspirator that wanted to get personal power. Mazzini is completely aware and awakened to understand that this is not but the false use of the term “Illuminati” to restore traditional and dogmatic power. Instead, Mazzini was a champion of the fight for freedom.
Mazzini (see the Wikipedia biography) became a popular figure to the Italian exiles. While in Marseille, he lived in the apartment of Giuditta Bellerio Sidoli, a beautiful Modenese widow who would become his lover, and organized a new political society called La Giovine Italia (Young Italy). Young Italy was a secret society formed to promote Italian unification. Mazzini believed that a popular uprising would create a unified Italy, and would touch off a European-wide revolutionary movement.
In 1833 Mazzini launched a first attempt of insurrection, which would spread from Chambéry (then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia), Alessandria, Turin and Genoa. However, the Savoy government discovered the plot before it could begin and many revolutionaries (including Vincenzo Gioberti) were arrested. The repression was ruthless: 12 participants were executed, while Mazzini’s best friend and director of the Genoese section of the Giovine Italia, Jacopo Ruffini, killed himself. Mazzini was tried in absence and sentenced to death.
Despite this setback (whose victims later created numerous doubts and psychological strife in Mazzini), he organized another uprising for the following year. A group of Italian exiles were to enter Piedmont from Switzerland and spread the revolution there, while Giuseppe Garibaldi, who had recently joined the Giovine Italia, was to do the same from Genoa. However, the Piedmontese troops easily crushed the new attempt.
In the Spring of 1834, while at Berne, Mazzini and a dozen refugees from Italy, Poland and Germany founded a new association with the grandiose name of Young Europe. Its basic, and equally grandiose idea, was that, as the French Revolution of 1789 had enlarged the concept of individual liberty, another revolution would now be needed for national liberty; and his vision went further because he hoped that in the no doubt distant future free nations might combine to form a loosely federal Europe with some kind of federal assembly to regulate their common interests.
On May 28, 1834 Mazzini was arrested at Solothurn, and exiled from Switzerland. He moved to Paris, where he was again imprisoned on July 5. He was released only after promising he would move to England. Mazzini, together with a few Italian friends, moved in January 1837 to live in London in very poor economic conditions.
On April 30, 1837 Mazzini reformed the Giovine Italia in London, and on November 10 of the same year he began issuing the Apostolato popolare (“Apostleship of the People”).
A succession of failed attempts at promoting further uprising in Sicily, Abruzzi, Tuscany and Lombardy-Venetia discouraged Mazzini for a long period, which dragged on until 1840. He was also abandoned by Sidoli, who had returned to Italy to rejoin her children.
Then Mazzini founded several organizations aimed at the unification or liberation of other nations, in the wake of Giovine Italia: Young Germany, Young Poland, Young Switzerland, which were under the aegis of Young Europe (Giovine Europa).